The snapctl tool is bundled with snapd to provide specific environmental feedback and a limited set of controls from within the context of a snap’s execution environment in relation to snapd. It can be used, for example, to retrieve and set snap configuration options, check the status of a running snap, and reboot an Ubuntu Core 20 environment.
snapctl is typically run from a script within a snap, rather than on the host system. These scripts are used by snap developers to implement hooks, or from within snapcraft.yaml, to augment a snap’s execution environment.
Services: start, stop and restart services and daemons
System mode: returns various values about the system state
A snap’s configuration options can be queried and altered with the snapctl get, snapctl set and snapctl unset commands. These work very similar to the analogous snap get/set/.. commands outside the snap. The main difference is that using these commands from within a snap will not trigger the configure hook.
The snapctl command uses the same get, set and unset syntax as the snap command:
snapctl get <configuration option>
For example, the following sets a value of 80 for http:
snapctl set ports.http=80
To unset a value, pass its name with snapctl unset, and more than one value can be passed at a time:
snapctl unset ports.http ports.https
For convenience, an option can also be unset by adding an exclamation mark (!) to the end of a value. For example, the following unsetshttps:
snapctl set ports.http=80 ports.https!
By using a dot in the key of an option, you create a nested configuration. You can retrieve multiple nested options by specifying their common key:
$ snapctl get ports
To see this in action, look at the NextCloud snap. It uses snapctl within its various hooks to set configuration options such as snapctl get private.mode and snapctl set private.mode="$1".
waiting: some resource the snap needs isn’t ready yet, and there’s nothing for the user to do but wait. A message (+code) must explain what it’s waiting for
blocked: the user needs to do something for the snap to do something. A message (+code) must say what
error: something went wrong; a message (+code) must explain what has broken
Outside the snap, health status in included as a note in the output to snap list, and as a category in snap info for a specific snap:
$ snap info nextcloud
summary: Nextcloud Server - A safe home for all your data
message: Backing up database.
checked: today at 10:44 GMT
For more comprehensive information on using snapctl set-health, see Health checks.
(from snapd 2.43+)
The state of a specific snap interface can be probed with the snapctl is-connected sub-command by supplying either a slot or plug name as an argument:
snapctl is-connected <plug|slot>
The plug or slot is always the name of the plug/slot from the calling snap.
If the given plug or slot is connected, the command returns the standard exit code for success, which is 0 on POSIX systems. A non-zero exit code is returned in all other cases.
For example, the following indicates the camera interface is not connected:
$ snapctl is-connected camera; echo $?
This behaviour can be easily used within a hook, for example:
if snapctl is-connected camera; then
# exit status=0. logic when connected
# logic when not connected; note if this is run from hooks.
# printing to stdout/stderr is not visible to the user
# (unless the hook fails entirely with exit status > 0)
echo "not connected"
Snaps can only query their own plugs and slots because the snap name is implicit and implied by the snapctl execution context.
The snap model command can be used to return to the active model identification for the device, and snapctl model returns the equivalent to snap model --verbose from within a snap. However, for this to work, the requesting snap needs to meet one of the following criteria:
Refresh control (from the UC20+ gate-auto-refresh hook)
The gate-auto-refresh hook is executed by snapd for every snap that will be updated with the next automatic refresh. It’s also executed for every snap that is dependent on a snap that will be updated.
This hook is capable of executing the snapctl refresh command with 3 specific arguments, hold, proceed and pending:
This feature is currently considered experimental. See Refresh control for further details.
snapctl refresh --hold
Requests that snapd does not refresh the calling snap, nor the snaps it depends upon, during the current automatic refresh. A snap can hold its own refresh for up to 90 days and other snaps for up to 48 hours. The command prints an error and returns a non-zero exit status if these deadlines are reached and the refresh can no longer be held.
snapctl refresh --proceed
Signals to snapd that a refresh can proceed for both the calling snap and the snaps it depends upon. This does not necessarily mean the update will happen, because they may be held by other snaps, and snapd only proceeds with auto-refresh after consulting gate-auto-refresh hooks of all potentially affected snaps.
snapctl refresh --pending
Checks whether the executing snap has a pending refresh, or will be affected by the refresh of its base snap.
The output from snapctl refresh --pending includes the following details:
pending: none, inhibited or ready
version: version (only if there is a pending refresh for the snap itself)
revision: revision (only if there is a pending refresh for the snap itself)
base: true or false (true if the snap is affected by refresh of its base snap)
restart: true or false (true if refresh will cause system restart)
The pending output value is set to “none” if there is no pending refresh for the snap and the value is “ready” if there is a pending refresh. A pending value of “inhibited” indicates that the next refresh is inhibited because one or more of the snap’s applications are running. This currently requires the experimental refresh app awareness feature to be enabled (see below).
The snap-refresh-control interface
The snapctl refresh --proceed command can be executed by a snapped application outside of the gate-auto-refresh hook if the snap has the snap-refresh-control interface and the interface is connected. This enables the snap to trigger an auto-refresh outside of the normal auto-refresh schedule and should be used cautiously.
Please note that the “snapctl refresh” commands cannot be used from hooks other than gate-auto-refresh hook.
If the gate-auto-refresh hook doesn’t invoke “snapctl refresh --proceed” or “snapctl refresh --hold” commands and exits with exit code 0, the refresh proceeds normally as if the hook didn’t exist (except for respecting “inhibited” status if refresh app awareness is in use).
If the hook fails with an error, snapd assumes “hold” as long as the maximum deadline hasn’t been reached.
As with configuration options (see above), snapctl sub-commands for managing services are the same as those used by the snap command. See Services and daemons for further details.
To query the startup and running state of a service, for example, use snapctl services <service-name>:
$ snapctl services nextcloud.mysql
Service Startup Current Notes
nextcloud.mysql enabled active -
The start, stop and restart snapctl commands can be used to start, stop and restart services:
$ snapctl stop nextcloud.mysql
$ snapctl services nextcloud.mysql
Service Startup Current Notes
nextcloud.mysql enabled inactive -
Services can be enabled and disabled by adding the --enable argument to snapctl start and --disable to snapctl stop respectively:
Set when the installation of seeded snaps for the model has finished.
Only possible on a UC20+ system in install mode (system-mode: install) with the factory image hint set. This value can be used to govern whether factory-only resources may be available. See Factory image hint for more details.